BlogFive ways to optimize the efficiency of crawlers

Five ways to optimize the efficiency of crawlers

2023-07-18 13:28:00

In the rapidly developing Internet era, the use of crawlers to obtain data has become the mainstream data collection method. However, for crawlers, improving the crawling efficiency is a key issue. In today's "time is life, efficiency is money" background, inefficient crawling means falling behind. To that end, here are five ways to optimize the efficiency of crawlers:

1, reduce the number of visits: in the crawler task, the main time is concentrated in the process of waiting for the response of network requests. Therefore, by reducing the number of network requests, the crawl efficiency can be significantly improved. Here are some ways to do it:

Batch request: When crawling, you can reduce the number of single requests by batch request. Combining multiple requests into a single batch can reduce network overhead and request latency compared to sending requests individually. This can reduce the load of the target website and improve the efficiency of the crawler.

Incremental crawling: This mode can be used for periodic data update or continuous monitoring. By comparing the timestamp or data version of the last crawl, only the latest updated data is obtained, rather than having to repeat the crawl of already obtained data. This method can effectively reduce the number of unnecessary visits, saving resources and time.

Caching mechanism: For static pages or data that changes infrequently, a caching mechanism can be introduced. When a crawler requests this data, it first retrieves it from the local cache, avoiding the need to send a request to the target website every time. This not only reduces the number of visits to the target website, but also improves the crawling efficiency.

①Three functions and introduction of dynamic proxy IP

Deduplication policy: During the crawl process, the deduplication policy is used to prevent repeated requests for the same URL. Requests can be derejudged by the hash value of the URL or other unique identifier, and only URL requests that have not been crawled are sent. This reduces duplicate requests and improves resource utilization.

Asynchronous requests: Using an asynchronous request framework or library such as Scrapy, it is possible to send multiple requests simultaneously in a single thread and asynchronously wait for a response. This can make full use of the advantages of parallel processing and improve the efficiency of crawling. At the same time, asynchronous requests can avoid waiting for the response of one request while blocking other requests, and make more efficient use of network resources.

2, streamline the process to avoid duplication: most websites are not strictly tree structure, but multiple cross network structure. As a result, digging into a web page from multiple entry points results in many repeated crawls. By determining uniqueness based on URL or ID, you can avoid repeated crawling of already obtained data. If the data can be obtained on one page, avoid repeating the data on multiple pages.

②There are three common types of rotating proxy IP addresses

3, multi-threaded tasks: most crawler tasks belong to I/O blocking tasks. Therefore, the use of multi-threaded concurrency can effectively improve the overall speed. Multithreading can make better use of resources, simplify programming, and improve response speed.

4, distributed task: if the single machine can not reach the target within the specified time, can not complete the task in time, you can try to use distributed crawler. Distributed crawler allows multiple machines to perform crawler tasks at the same time, increasing the crawling speed. For example, if you have 1 million pages to crawl, you can divide them among five machines, each of which will crawl an unduplicated 200,000 pages, reducing the total time.

5, the use of high-quality proxy IP: in crawlers, often need to use proxy IP to assist in crawling data. If you crawl directly without using the proxy IP, it is likely that the target site's access mechanism will recognize and restrict the collection. Therefore, choosing to use a high-quality proxy IP is very important to improve the efficiency of crawling.

In summary, crawler efficiency can be significantly optimized by reducing the number of visits, streamlining processes, adopting multi-threading and distributed tasks, and using high-quality proxy IP. These methods not only improve the speed and efficiency of data acquisition, but also can deal with large-scale data acquisition tasks and provide better data support.

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