62 million IPs worldwide
The IPv4 protocol has accompanied the Internet for many years, however, as the number of Internet users around the world continues to grow, IPv4 address resources are gradually depleted. In order to cope with the growing demand of the Internet and solve the problem of IPv4 address shortage, IPv6 protocol was proposed and gradually promoted. However, the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 does not happen overnight, and the Internet is still dominated by IPv4. Therefore, in the process of implementing the upgrade from IPv4 to IPv6 protocol, the following three main schemes need to be considered:
1. IPv4/IPv6 dual protocol stack
IPv4/IPv6 dual protocol stack is an important transition mechanism for upgrading from IPv4 to IPv6 protocol. The implementation of dual protocol stacks on network devices and mobile terminals is to support both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols in the current mainstream network environment, so that network devices and terminals can smoothly transition to IPv6 while maintaining compatibility with IPv4.
In the aspect of network, especially for some core network devices, such as the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), the implementation of dual protocol stack is very important. The GGSN is an important node in the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network and is responsible for connecting mobile terminals to the Internet. By installing IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks on the GGSN, making it a dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 node, it can support communication using both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.
The dual stack also enables ipv6-in-ipv4 tunneling, which is a technology that encapsulates IPv6 packets within IPv4 packets. In this way, even if the current network infrastructure mainly supports IPv4, through tunneling technology, IPv6 packets can also be transmitted in the existing IPv4 network, so as to achieve the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. The dual stack design allows the host to flexibly switch between IPv4 and IPv6, allowing the host to communicate with other hosts that only support IPv4 or IPv6 protocols for a smoother Internet connection.
In terms of mobile terminals, it is also necessary to implement IPv4/IPv6 dual protocol stacks. Due to the large number of mobile terminals, in order to promote the popularity of IPv6 applications, IPv6 support for mobile terminals is crucial. By installing dual stacks on mobile terminals, users can seamlessly switch between IPv4 and IPv6, access ipv6-enabled websites and services, and gradually promote the full application of IPv6.
2. Tunnel technology
Tunnelling is an important mechanism used in the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 to implement IPv6 packet transmission in IPv4 infrastructure. Due to protocol incompatibility between IPv4 and IPv6, tunneling is widely used to help IPv6 packets travel over existing IPv4 networks, allowing IPv6 to run on current network infrastructure that primarily supports IPv4.
In tunneling, when an IPv6 packet needs to be transmitted over an IPv4 network, the IPv6 packet is encapsulated as a payload in an IPv4 packet. In this way, the IPv4 router can recognize and transmit the IPv4 packet, while the specific content of the IPv6 packet is not visible to the IPv4 router. Tunnel technology is equivalent to building a channel on the IPv4 network, so that IPv6 packets can be transmitted on the IPv4 network through this channel, so as to realize the transition from IPv4 to IPv6.
3. Protocol conversion technology
Protocol conversion technology is an important mechanism used in the process of upgrading from IPv4 to IPv6 to realize the communication between IPv4 and IPv6 hosts. Due to the protocol incompatibility between IPv4 and IPv6, the protocol translation technology combines network address translation (NAT) technology to carry out protocol translation and address mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 networks, so as to realize the interworking between dual-protocol hosts.
Protocol transformation technology is divided into two forms: static and dynamic.
Static protocol translation: In static protocol translation, the network administrator manually configures the mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. When an IPv4 host wants to communicate with an IPv6 host, the network address translator allocates an IPv4 address from the IPv4 address pool to identify the IPv6 peer based on the pre-configured mapping. The IPv4 packet is then protocol translated, the IPv6 packet is encapsulated in the IPv4 packet and the assigned IPv4 pool address is used as the destination address. On an IPv4 network, the IPv4 packet is transmitted to the destination IPv4 address and then decapsulated on the endpoint router to deliver the IPv6 packet to the destination IPv6 host.
Dynamic protocol translation technology: Dynamic protocol translation technology is automatically configured, and network address converters dynamically map IPv4 and IPv6 addresses according to runtime requirements. When an IPv4 host wants to communicate with an IPv6 host, the network address translator automatically assigns an available IPv4 pool address and uses it as the IPv4 address that identifies the IPv6 peer. The IPv6 packet is then encapsulated in the IPv4 packet and the dynamically assigned IPv4 pool address is used as the destination address. In an IPv4 network, the IPv4 packet is transmitted to the destination IPv4 address, and the IPv6 packet is unsealed on the endpoint router for delivery to the destination IPv6 host.
The gradual implementation of these upgrade plans will help achieve a smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6, provide the Internet with more adequate and stable IP address resources, and promote the sustainable development and innovation of the Internet. At the same time, these solutions also need to work with Internet service providers, equipment manufacturers and users to ensure the compatibility of network facilities and end devices, and successfully achieve the full application of IPv6.
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