62 million IPs worldwide
HTTP protocol is the cornerstone of the development of the Internet, but with the rapid development of the Internet, the defects of HTTP protocol are gradually revealed. In order to make up for these shortcomings, HTTPS protocol was born and gradually became the mainstream communication protocol. Compared to the HTTP protocol, HTTPS fixes the following flaws:
1. HTTPS communication encryption: The HTTP protocol uses plaintext when transmitting data, which means that the content of communications can be easily eavesdropped and intercepted. In an insecure network environment, hackers or malicious users can intercept HTTP traffic with simple network sniffing tools and easily obtain sensitive information such as login credentials, personally identifiable information, and so on.
To solve this security problem, HTTPS came into being. HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. It is a combination of HTTP and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS). SSL and TLS are security protocols used for encrypted communication. By establishing secure communication lines over HTTP, HTTP communication content is encrypted.
During HTTPS communication, an SSL/TLS handshake is first performed between the client and server, which is used to establish a secure communication line and negotiate the encryption algorithm and key. After the handshake is successful, all HTTP communications are transmitted through this secure line to ensure that the communication data cannot be eavesdropped or tampered with during transmission.
HTTPS communication encryption uses the combination of asymmetric encryption and symmetric encryption. In the process of SSL/TLS handshake, asymmetric encryption algorithm is used for key exchange to ensure the establishment of secure communication lines. Then, the two parties use the agreed symmetric key to encrypt and decrypt the content of the subsequent communication. Due to the high efficiency of the symmetric encryption algorithm, HTTPS communication can ensure the security without significantly affecting the communication speed.
2. HTTPS Content encryption: In the traditional HTTP protocol, although the communication can be encrypted through SSL/TLS, the content of HTTP packets is still transmitted in plain text. This means that the body of the message, the actual data part of the HTTP request or response, remains exposed to eavesdropping and interception on the network.
To enhance communication security, HTTPS encrypts the content of HTTP packets. This encryption mode is called content encryption or body encryption. In this case, the client needs to encrypt the body of the packet before sending the HTTP request to ensure that the actual data of the request is protected during transmission.
There are many ways to implement content encryption, and the common ways include symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption:
Symmetric encryption: The client and server use the same encryption key to encrypt the body of HTTP packets. Then, during transmission, only the recipient holding the corresponding key can decrypt and restore the original data. The advantage of symmetric encryption is that the encryption and decryption speed is fast, and it is suitable for the encrypted transmission of a large amount of data.
Asymmetric encryption: Also known as public key encryption, the client and server use a pair of keys, namely the public key and the private key. The client encrypts the HTTP packet body using the public key of the server, and then sends the encrypted data to the server. The server uses the private key to decrypt and restore the original data. Asymmetric encryption has the advantage of high security, but the encryption and decryption speed is relatively slow, which is suitable for the encrypted transmission of a small amount of data.
With content encryption, HTTPS ensures complete encrypted transmission of HTTP packets, including the header and body of the packet. Even if a hacker intercepts HTTPS traffic, he or she can't get the request or response data in plain text because it's already effectively encrypted. This content encryption mechanism greatly enhances the security of communication data and protects the user's sensitive information and privacy.
3, verify the identity of the communication party: the HTTP protocol cannot determine the true identity of the communication party, which may lead to security access threats. With SSL, you can use a certificate to verify the identity of the communication party. The certificate is issued by a trusted third-party authority and is used to confirm the real existence of the server and client. In this way, the identities of both parties are verified, which increases the security of communication.
4, Ensure data integrity: HTTP cannot prove the integrity of the message, so that the data may be tampered with. After HTTPS security certificate authentication, the client and server negotiate a symmetric key. The symmetric key is used to encrypt data during subsequent sessions to ensure data confidentiality. After the valid data, a summary data is added to ensure the integrity of the data. After receiving the data, the receiver decrypts it and then verifies the summary value to determine whether the data has been tampered with.
To sum up, HTTPS successfully fixes multiple defects of HTTP by encrypting communication content, verifying the identity of the communication party, and ensuring data integrity, making Internet communication more secure and reliable. With the increasing importance of network security, the HTTPS protocol has become a necessity for the current Internet.
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